The Hurooful Madd letters are:

اوي

MADDUL ASLI – The Original Elongation of 2 Harakah (Qasr – shortness)

Alif (ا) is one of the letters of Madd when it is preceded by a Fathah (َ)
Waw (و) is one of the letters of Madd when it is preceded by a Dammah (ُ)
Yaa (ي ) is one of the letters of Madd when it is preceded by a Kasrah (ِ)

Examples:

ا

قَالَ إِنَّهُۥ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لَّا ذَلُولٌ تُثِيرُ ٱلْأَرْضَ وَلَا تَسْقِى ٱلْحَرْثَ

و

وَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ فَيَقُولُونَ مَاذَآ أَرَادَ ٱللَّهُ بِهَٰذَا مَثَلًا

ي

وَلِلْكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ

MADDUL MUTTASIL – The joined madd
When a Hurooful Madd letter (اوي) is followed by a Hamza (ء) in the same word, the Madd is known as Maddul Muttasil. The length of recitation of the Maddul Muttasil should be Tul (lengthy). i.e. 4 to 6 Harakaat long (4-6 second duration)

Examples:

ا

إِذَا جَآءَ نَصْرُ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلْفَتْحُ

ا

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ سَوَآءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ ءَأَنذَرْتَهُمْ

و

وَمَن يَعْمَلْ سُوٓءًا أَوْ يَظْلِمْ نَفْسَهُۥ ثُمَّ يَسْتَغْفِرِ ٱللَّهَ يَجِدِ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

و

وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۙ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ لَهُمُ ٱللَّعْنَةُ وَلَهُمْ سُوٓءُ ٱلدَّارِ

ي

فَإِن طِبْنَ لَكُمْ عَن شَىْءٍ مِّنْهُ نَفْسًا فَكُلُوهُ هَنِيٓـًٔا مَّرِيٓـًٔا

ي

وَجِا۟ىٓءَ يَوْمَئِذٍۭ بِجَهَنَّمَ

MADDUL MUNFASIL – The detached
If a word ends in one of the Hurooful Madd letters (اوي) and the following word begins with a Hamza (ء) then that Madd is known as Maddul Munfasil. The length of recitation of the Maddul Munfasil will be Tawassut (intermediate). i.e. 3 to 5 Harakaat (3-5 second duration)

Examples:

ا

إِنَّآ أَعْطَيْنَٰكَ ٱلْكَوْثَرَ

ا

إِنَّآ أَنزَلْنَٰهُ فِى لَيْلَةِ ٱلْقَدْرِ

و

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ قُوٓا۟ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَأَهْلِيكُمْ نَارًا وَقُودُهَا

و

وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِىٓ أَنفُسِكُمْ فَٱحْذَرُوهُ

ي

وَفِىٓ أَنفُسِكُمْ

ي

وَلَوْ عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِكُمْ

MADDUL LAAZIM – Compulsory
It is imperative to pronounce the Huroof Muqatta Aat letters which appear at the beginning of a Surah. This Madd is called Maddul Laazim. The length of recitation of Maddul Laazim will be Tul (lengthy). i.e. 6 Harakaat long (6 second duration).

Examples:

كٓهيعٓصٓ

قٓ ۚ وَٱلْقُرْءَانِ ٱلْمَجِيدِ

نٓ ۚ وَٱلْقَلَمِ وَمَا يَسْطُرُونَ

حمٓ

الٓمٓ

عٓسٓقٓ

MADDUL AARIDH – The abrupt stop
If after any Hurooful Madd letter (اوي) there appears a Saakin (ْ ) which is caused by a Waqaf (stop) then such a Madd is known as Maddul Aaridh. The length of recitation of the Maddul Aaridh will be tawassut (intermediate). i.e. 2 to 5 Harakaat long. (2-5 second duration).

Examples:

ا

وَمَن لَّا يُجِبْ دَاعِىَ ٱللَّهِ فَلَيْسَ بِمُعْجِزٍ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ وَلَيْسَ لَهُۥ مِن دُونِهِۦٓ أَوْلِيَآءُ

و

وَقِيلَ هَٰذَا ٱلَّذِى كُنتُم بِهِۦ تَدَّعُونَ

ي

فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ مِن مَّشْهَدِ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ

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